Charles V's problems as emperor included all the following
A. prolonged religious warfare in Germany.
B. the aggressive expansion of the Ottoman Empire into central Europe.
C. prolonged conflict with France.
D. competition with England for colonies in North America.
As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the German people:
A. all became Lutheran.
B. could freely practice the religion of their choice.
C. could freely choose to be either Lutheran or Catholic.
D. could be either Lutheran or Catholic depending on the preference of their prince.
Zwingli's interpretation of the Lord's Supper differed from Luther's in that:
A. Luther held to the Catholic belief in transubstantiation.
B. Luther said the ceremony was totally symbolic.
C. Zwingli said the ceremony was symbolic.
D. Zwingli held to the belief called consubstantiation.
A. were most radical and militant under Menno Simons in Zurich.
B. were not regarded as a political threat because they preached the separation between church and state.
C. began as an elitist movement.
D. considered all believers equal priests spreading the spirit of early Christianity.
The separation of England under Henry VIII from the Roman church:
A. was triggered by Henry's desire to annul his marriage.
B. witnessed the complete transformation of Catholic doctrine in a Protestant English church.
C. nearly ended with Thomas Cromwell's bungling of the suppression of the monasteries.
D. demonstrated Parliament's control over the Church of England.
According to Calvin, how could a person earn salvation?
A. through faith alone.
B. through the sacraments.
C. through living a moral and industrious life.
D. no one could earn salvation; God had already chosen which sinners would be saved, and the rest were damned.
In Geneva the Calvinists:
A. imposed strict penalties for blasphemy and immoral behavior.
B. reformed the city with little opposition from an enthusiastic populace.
C. saw their reforms jeopardized by the execution of Michael Servetus.
D. withdrew the Ecclesiastical Ordinances in 1541 and ended their experiment in theocracy.
Calvin's concept of predestination:
A. was essentially passive and pessimistic.
B. stressed the energizing power of belief in one's salvation.
C. created serious social problems in Geneva.
D. made Calvinism unappealing and hindered its spread.
Calvinism became the driving force in international Protestantism because:
A. it preached predestination.
B. Luther was distracted by his conflict with the papacy.
C. of the social and economic applications of Calvin's ideas.
D. of Calvin's linguistic and legal skills.
At the Council of Trent, Catholic leaders:
A. compromised with the Protestants on the doctrine of Justification by Faith.
B. agreed with most Protestants that there were only two sacraments.
C. asserted the importance of doctrine over ritual.
D. reaffirmed traditional Catholic doctrines but ordered administrative and educational reforms.