The Late Middle Ages:
The Golden Bull of 1356 in Germany:
A. made Emperor Charles IV the first in a line of hereditary rulers.
B. ensured the independence of the ecclesiastical states.
C. gave seven electors the power to choose the "King of the Romans."
D. ensured strong central authority for Germany over the next century.
The Doge was the chief political figure in the Italian city-state of:
The Italian condottieri were:
A. political leaders who urged reform.
B. leaders of mercenary troops.
C. silk merchants.
D. reformers in the Catholic church.
The Great Schism:
A. occurred when French forces captured and executed the Italian pope on charges of heresy.
B. damaged the prestige of the church.
C. ended with the victory of Pope Clement VII.
D. ended with the victory of Pope Urban VI.
The conciliar movement basically maintained that:
A. the pope in Rome was the true pope.
B. all factions of the church had to be reunited.
C. reform should be initiated at all levels of the church.
D. a general council representing the entire church had ultimate authority.
One overall result of the Great Schism was to:
A. put an end to the church's previous financial abuses.
B. introduce doctrinal uncertainty into the lives of Christians.
C. rejuvenate Christianity after it had been on the decline throughout Europe.
D. end the abuse of pluralism.
Joan of Arc:
A. helped defeat the English at the Battle of Agincourt.
B. liberated Orleans and the Loire Valley from English control.
C. saw her task accomplished when Henry V was crowned king of France in 1429.
D. confessed to the Inquisition's charges of hersy before being burned at the stake.
Mysticism in the fourteenth century:
A. emphasized the experience of oneness with God.
B. was especially advocated by the nominalist school of William of Occam.
C. was endorsed and closely controlled by the Catholic church.
D. rarely involved women.
A. is considered a synthesis of medieval Christian thought.
B. was one of the last fourteenth-century works to be written in Latin.
C. lashed out at the "barbarity" of the classical tradition.
D. attacked Aristotelian science, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Catholic church.
Changed urban attitudes in the fourteenth century included:
A. the promotion of equality between men and women in the workplace.
B. later marriages and increases in extended families.
C. children being seen only as useful in an economic function.
D. the acceptance and regulation of prostitution.