The Middle Ages:
The English king who helped establish a unified Anglo-Saxon monarchy by defeating the Danish army was:
A. Otto the Great.
B. Alfred the Great.
C. Ethelred the Unready.
D. Charles the Bold.
The sale of church offices was known as
B. an indulgence.
The Cluniac reform movement:
A. argued that the Holy Roman Emperor received his authority from God.
B. tried to eliminate monastic abuses.
C. began in Germany.
D. saw the papacy lose control over the church.
The abbot of Cluny and the Cluniac reform movement
A. replaced manual lavor with copying of manuscripts by monks.
B. frowned on communal worship and stressed individualism.
C. decentralized monastic authority to make each house virtually independent.
D. had their greatest impact in England.
The "investiture controversy" refers to the dispute over:
A. the right of imperial courts to pass judgment on the clergy.
B. who should get funds from tithes.
C. the designation of heirs to the imperial throne.
D. bishops receiving the symbols of spiritual power from the emperors.
The goal of the Gregorian reform movement was
A. the end of Philip I's adulterous marriage.
B. the abolition of simony and the enforcement of the rules of celibacy.
C. the moral reform of the clergy and the centralization of the Church under papal authority.
D. the excommunication of William of Normandy.
Pope Gregory VII's claims were different from those of some of his predecessors in that
A. he claimed popes had the right to depose monarchs.
B. he claimed popes should not have to be involved in the church's everyday activities.
C. the church should extend its missionary activities to China.
D. the church should collect new taxes to finance new building programs.
The growing prestige and power of the papacy in the twelfth century was
the result of
A. papal leadership of the Crusades.
B. the development of an efficient, centralized papal curia.
C. the imposition of papal taxes over all European states.
D. papal leadership over local and European-wide church councils.
Hildegard of Bingen was typical of nuns in the twelfth century in that she
A. exercised mystical, priestly powers.
B. was allowed to leave her convent and travel through Europe at will.
C. was regarded as subordinate to males and scorned by contemporary church officials.
D. came from an upper-class background.
The Crusade which resulted in the establishment of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was the
A. First Crusade.
B. Second Crusade.
C. Third Crusade.
D. Fourth Crusade.