- How did Christian missionaries convert the pagans? What devices and
techniques did they use in the assimilation of Germanic peoples into Christianity?
- One of the major concerns of early Christian leaders was the response
to pre- Christian culture and civilization. How did the early Christian
church view the pre-Christian world? How was the conflict resolved? How
did the Christian church in the Byzantine Empire differ from that of the
West in this regard?
- What ideas did Saint Augustine contribute to Christian thought? What
was happening to Rome at the time St. Augustine wrote City of God? How
could this have influenced his philosophy that the City of God is more
important than the city of man?
- One of the long-range results of Diocletian's division of th Roman
Empire was the schism between the Eastern and Western Christian churches.
Trace the evolution of theschism from about 350 to 1054. What were the
differences between Eastern and Western Christianity?
- Why was the defeat of the Roman army by the Visigoths in 378 a turning
point in European history?
- The Bishop of Rome acquired not only spirititual but also secular leadership
in the early fifth century. How did this come about? What was the intellectual
justification for this development?
- What patterns of social and political life existed in German socity
and what was the economy like? How and why did Germanic law evolve and
how did it work? What impact did the traditions, beliefs and laws of the
Germanic peoples have on the subsequentof European civilization?
- Why was there no church-state conflict in the eastern part of the empire?
What was Muhammad's message? What impact did the Muslims have on the politics
and culture of the Mediterranean world?
- What was the relationship between the Carolingians and the pope? How
did both sides benefit from the relationship?
- How successful was Charlemagne in expanding the power of the Frankish
state? What techniques and methods did Charlemagen use to govern his vast
empire? How well did his empire function? Why did it collapse and fragment
after his death? what were the consequences of this collapse?
- What were the probable reasons for Charlmagne's quest forthe title
of emperor? What were the results?
- What was the Church's attitude toward Charlemagne and the political
value ofthe "state"?
- In the early medieval period, a person of forty was considered old.
Why did people die so young? How much did people understand about disease,
and what kind of health care existed?
- What role did the church play in the recovery of Europe after 900 from
a period of war and invasion?
- During the High Middle Ages, the church underwent reform on two fronts:
spiritual and secular. Why? Trace and discuss these two reform movements.
What were the immediate and long-term effects of the reforms?
- What were the goals of the Cluniac reformers? Why were the interested
in isolation from lay society? Compare their reforms with those of the
papal reformers. What abuses did Leo IX, Gregory VII and their allies see
as most important to cure? Why?
- The battle over lay investiture affected all the monarchs of Europe,
but was fought most bitterly by the German emperors. What was the main
issue? What happened? Why did lay investiture cause greater concern in
Germany than in France or England? Who were the ultimate winners and losers
in this struggle?
- The Crusades were a symbol of the religious enthusiasm of the age.
Did people have other motivations to go on holy wars besides religious
zeal? What were they? In what sense were the Crusades a"steam valve"
for late medieval society? What were the goals of the Crusades? How can
we account for their general failure? How did Muslims view the Crusades?
What lasting impact did they have?
- What changes did the Crusades bring to western European society? Did
the benefits outweigh the disadvantages?
- Why did the population of Europe begin to increase in the eleventh
century? What consequences did this have?
- The eleventh century saw great economic revival and recovery. What
factors influenced this? Who enjoyed the benefits of prosperity?
- How did the political revival of the era affect reform of the church?
In what ways did church reform affect secular developments? Which benefited
most, the church or the secular rulers?
- Describe the idea of "the freedom of the church," which emerged
from the Gregorian reform movement, and how it was connected to the practice
of lay investiture. What role did this idea play in the conflict between
Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII?
- "In the society of the High Middle Ages, function determined social
classification." Discuss this statement in terms of those who worked,
those who prayed, and those who fought. Does it adequately describe the
reality of society in the 11-13th centuries? Why or why not?
- Describe popular religion in the 11-13th centuries. How did Church
authorities respond to these popular beliefs and practices? What do these
popular beliefs and practices reveal about medieval society?
- In medieval times, the nobles were considered to be "those who
fought." Is this an adequate description of the European nobility
of the period? How did the code of chivalry reinforce this function? What
other functions did nobles perform?
- One of the greatest concerns of medieval nobles was the preservation
of family holdings. What practices did they adopt to ensure the continuation
of family property? What did these strategies mean for their wives and
- Why did aristocratic men in the Middle ages marry late, and aristocratic
women marry early? Why was noble society marked by sexual tension and generational
- Most people in the Middle Ages believed that the role of monasteries
was to pray for the rest of society. Is this an accurate description of
what the monastic orders did? Why or why not? What other contributions
did the monastic orders make to medieval society? How did monastic organization
reflect and reinforce these functions? What was the social background of
most medieval monks? How did this tend to change in the later Middle Ages?
- Medieval agriculture was based on the manor. Describe a typical manor
and the life of a typical inhabitant. What changes had European agriculture
undergone between the early Middle Ages and the 13th century? With what
consequences? How effect was manor-based agriculture in supplying the needs
of Europeans at the time?
- Discuss the opportunities for social and economic mobility for both
men and women in the three social groups recognized in the High Middle
Agesthose who fought, those who prayed, and those who worked. Who
among these people had the greatest opportunities? In what ways did these
opportunities tend to expand or contract during this period? Who made the
greatest contribution to society? What role did the growing importance
of the towns and townsmen play ?